Territories of the Land
Violation of the Rights of Nature
On April 20, 2010, in Cochabamba-Bolivia, at the World People Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth (Conferencia Mundial de los Pueblos sobre el Cambio Climático y los Derechos de la Madre Tierra), the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth was adopted. This Declaration raises the Right to nature to exist and respect its right to integral regeneration and restoration.
The extractivism is a policy that violates the Rights of nature considering that it is at the service of human beings. The environmental impacts, such as the destruction of wild ecosystems, the contamination of water, soil or air or the loss of access to water, are all violations of the so-called third generation rights, focused on the quality of life or a healthy environment.
Dispossession of land and Contamination
The dispossession of land and the contamination and disappearance of water sources as a result of extractivism pose a situation differentiated by gender and result in risks for women and their families.
Given this situation, women are forced to move to other areas or cities to ensure the provision of resources and food for their families, and thus exposing them to extreme poverty, discrimination, labor exploitation, prostitution and sexual violence (United Nations, 2014).
The inability to access goods for livelihood due to contamination or disappearance and the incompatibility between extractive activities and other productive activities generate a drastic loss of economic autonomy for women.
National Network of Women in Defense of Mother Earth (Bolivia)
Violation of the Food Sovereignty
Josefina Gana Portal
Militarization of the Territory
The militarization of the territories where extractive activities are developed responds to a common measure used by the governments in Latin America. It facilitates the repression of the social mobilizations and preserve the extractive operations from being affected.
Furthermore the militarization of the territories generates the masculinization of the land and in the same way an upsurge of the patriarchal violence and gender inequality.